How to Choose a Mountain Bike? [Beginner’s GUIDE]

How to Choose a Mountain Bike? Multiple MTBs parked at cafe

Hardtail or full suspension? Trail vs. enduro? 27.5″ or 29″? Aluminum or carbon?

These are probably just some of the questions you ask yourself when choosing a mountain bike.

In this guide, you will learn what type of MTB is the best for you based on your needs and the mountain biking discipline you prefer.

I interviewed my experienced MTB friends to give you helpful advice so you spend money wisely on your next mountain bike.

Let’s dive in.

Mountain Bike Type

The mountain bike type is the first thing to start with. There are 2 basic types of mountain bikes:

  1. A hardtail mountain bike is a bike without a rear suspension. It only has a front suspension (suspension fork). Mostly, these are cross-country mountain bikes, but there are also hardtail enduro, hardtail trail, or hardtail fat bikes. These types differ in geometry, front suspension travel, wheelbase, and other features (more about them later).
  2. A full-suspension mountain bike has a front (suspension fork) and a rear suspension (shock). There are full-suspension trail, enduro, or downhill bikes on the market.
mtb bike icon
A hardtail mountain bike
full suspension mountain bike icon
A full suspension mountain bike

The table below shows the benefits and disadvantages of hardtail and full-suspension mountain bikes.

Hardtail• Lower weight of the bike
• Lack of rear suspension maintenance
• Lower price
• Lower energy loss when pedaling
• Better for climbing
• Right riding technique for rough terrain needed
• Not as comfortable as full suspension bikes
• Doesn't handle rough terrain as well as full suspension bikes
Full suspension• Better comfort in rough terrain
• More versatile (jumps, drops, rock gardens, roots...)
• Easier to ride in more difficult terrain
• Better for downhills
• Higher price
• Higher overall weight of the bike
• More parts that can break
• Rear triangle maintenance
The pros and cons of hardtail vs. full-suspension mountain bikes

Once you know whether you want a hardtail or a full-suspension bike, you can start looking for the mountain bike type.

Mountain bike types - cross-country, trail, enduro, fatbike, downhill.
Mountain bike types | Product pictures were used with permission of


Cross-country bikes (also called XC bikes) have a geometry that allows easier pedaling than, for example, downhill bikes.

They also feature a shorter wheelbase that allows easy handling. During cross-country races, the bike has to be agile enough to allow the rider to ride through various obstacles.

XC bikes are fitted with 90-100mm of front suspension travel, with some models offering up to 120mm, according to BikeExchange.

Cross-country bikes are very versatile. They are perfect for cross-country races, but you can use them for trail riding, casual trips to the countryside, forest & dirt roads, gravel, and MTB-like terrains.


Trail bikes are designed for riding trails, singletracks, and technical descents. They allow you to pedal pretty easily and efficiently.

There are full (dual) suspension trail bikes and also hardtail trail bikes. Their wheelbase is wider compared to the XC mountain bikes.

They have larger suspension travel (it ranges from 120-150mm) somewhere between the XC and enduro bikes. This travel absorbs larger impacts, bumps, and rocks that you can come across on the trails.

According to the BikeExchange, trail bikes are the type of mountain bike that will excel in most terrains.


Enduro bikes have a longer wheelbase than XC and trail bikes, and thanks to their geometry, they have an even lower center of gravity. further explains that enduro bikes have slacker head tube angles. This means that the front wheel is further out ahead of the handlebars (which increases the wheelbase). This increases stability at higher speeds and in steep descents.

Their suspension travel ranges from 150-180mm, so you can hit big drops, rocks, and other obstacles with confidence.


Downhill bikes‘ geometry pushes the rider backward to lower the center of gravity in downhills. These bikes allow you to hit big jumps, drops, and the roughest types of terrain.

Due to their geometry, they are not suitable for riding uphills. So, most downhill riders take a hike, shuttle, or chairlift.

The suspension travel of downhill bikes is the longest, usually 180-200mm. They are designed to tackle the most difficult terrains you can imagine.


Fatbikes are specific for their ‘fat’ tires that are 4″ to 5″ wide. There are hardtail and full-suspension fatbikes on the market, so you have the option to choose from.

They are designed for terrains demanding wide tires like snow, mud, sand, or even bogs.

Their suspension travel varies greatly, but it usually ranges from around 100mm to 150mm.

Check the following table to see standard suspension travel ranges for different types of mountain bikes.

Type of Mountain BikeSuspension Travel

NOTE: There are also niche-specific mountain bikes. These include dirt jump bikes and single-speed bikes.

Frame Material

Another feature to consider when choosing a mountain bike is its frame material. There are 2 mainly used materials (aluminum and carbon) and 2 less used (steel and titanium):

  • Aluminum mountain bikes are the most affordable, thanks to the lower manufacturing costs. They are stiff and durable but not as much as carbon bikes. At the same time, aluminum is heavier than carbon. The downside of aluminum frames is that aluminum may corrode over time.
  • Carbon mountain bikes are stiffer, lighter, and more flexible than aluminum bikes. The flexibility means that the frame can absorb minor vibrations while maintaining great power transfer. The main downside of carbon mountain bikes is their high price.
  • Steel mountain bikes are very durable and relatively stiff but heavier than aluminum or carbon mountain bikes. Riders also appreciate their unique look, craftsmanship, and thin tubes. Steel mountain bikes are ideal for people who can appreciate details and are not as performance-focused.
  • Titanium mountain bikes share a lot of characteristics with steel bikes. They are stiff, rust-resistant, and comfortable to ride. Their thin tubes, shiny finish, and precise welds are something you won’t be able to overlook. The downside is the price due to labor-intensive work and the higher costs of titanium.

Sources: CyclistsHub, CyclingWeekly, SheldonBrownScienceDirect

Wheel Size

Most modern mountain bikes use 27.5″ or 29″ wheels. But there are also mountain bikes with 26″ wheels on the market. So how to choose the correct wheel size?

A side by side comparison of the 26" vs. 27.5" vs. 29" wheels
Comparison of 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheels

26″ wheels are outdated these days. They don’t provide the benefits of 27.5″ and 29″ wheels. Their only advantage is that they accelerate quickly, but they are not as comfortable and stable as the following two sizes. Yet, they are used mostly on dirt jump, freeride, and kids’ bikes, eventually on some downhill, trail, enduro, or some entry-level mountain bikes.

27.5″ wheels are much more widespread than 26″. They are ideal for shorter people or those riders who want to have an “agile” bike that is easier to handle in tight spaces. They offer better traction, stability, and contact area than 26″ wheels.

29″ wheels are better for taller riders, but shorter people can use them too. They have bigger inertia, so they are better at maintaining speed. They are also more comfortable on rougher terrain, more stable, and have better traction thanks to a larger surface area. Their only downside is that they accelerate slower than 26″ and 27.5″ wheels.

So, should you go for 27.5″ or 29″ wheels?

Well, it depends. Some retailers use different wheel sizes for different bike sizes. For example, sizes XS-M come with 27.5″ wheels and L & XL with 29″ wheels.

If you can, feel free to take a test ride. If you can’t, the general rule of thumb is that shorter riders prefer 27.5″ wheels and taller riders 29″. The 26″ are not very widespread anymore.


The drivetrain is one of the most important things to look for when choosing any bike. It is put under pressure every time you pedal and shift.

This means that if the drivetrain is low quality, it wears out easily, and you get a poor riding experience.

Mountain bikes use one of the following 3 types of chainrings – 1X, 2X, or 3X.

An illustration of a 1x chainring
1x chainring
An illustration of a 2x chainring
2x chainring
An illustration of a 3x chainring
3x chainring

1X chainrings are lighter, easier to maintain, and beginner-friendly because you don’t have to think about cross-chaining. Their downside is that the jumps between individual gears are larger than on 2X or 3X chainrings. Thanks to their simplicity, you can quickly change gears. This is a plus in sections that often require speed changes.

With 1X chainring, there is a lower risk of a dropped chain thanks to tall, unramped teeth and alternating tooth widths, as Bikeradar explains. A thing to consider with a 1X chainring is its size. The larger the chainring – the heavier the gears, and vice versa.

2X and 3X chainrings offer larger gear selection and smaller jumps between individual gears. It is handy if you need to tackle steeper sections. Their main downside is the weight, complexity, and more things that can go wrong. There is also a higher chance of a dropped chain.

3X chainrings are more common on entry-level mountain bikes. Good mountain bikes come with 1X or 2X chainrings. Depending on the terrain you want to ride, go for a 1X or 2X drivetrain.

In the table below, you can see the most popular mountain bike groupsets by Shimano and SRAM.

Entry levelTourneyMechanical
Entry levelAltusMechanical
Entry levelAceraX5Mechanical
Mid rangeAlivioX7
Mid rangeDeoreNX
Mid rangeSLXGX EagleMechanical
ProXT Di2X01Electronic
ProXTR XX1Mechanical
ProXTR Di2X01 Eagle
XX1 Eagle
This table compares mountain bike groupsets (from entry-level to pro) and their types of major manufacturers (Shimano, SRAM).

To learn more about individual groupsets, visit this extensive guide from Bikeradar.


Mountain bikes come with rim or disc brakes. Nowadays, only cheap mountain bikes come with rim brakes. More expensive bikes are almost exclusively equipped with disc brakes.

  1. Rim brakes are cheaper, lighter, and easier to maintain than disc brakes. Their stopping power is easily affected by elements like water or dirt. This means that rim brake mountain bikes are better for casual rides or commuting.
  2. Disc brakes provide you with better stopping power in any condition and effectivity, but they are heavier and more expensive than rim brakes. There are 2 types of disc brakes:
    • Mechanical disc brakes are cheaper and easier to maintain, but you have to put more pressure on the lever to stop.
    • Hydraulic disc brakes use a different technology that allows you easier brake control. They are more expensive than mechanical disc brakes and require more complicated maintenance. On the other hand, you don’t need to apply as much force for equal stopping power as on mechanical disc brakes.
      Learn more about the pros & cons of mechanical vs. hydraulic disc brakes.

Dropper Seatpost

Some bikes feature a dropper seatpost. A dropper seatpost is a cool nice-to-have feature. It allows you to drop your saddle when needed.

This is useful in downhills or technical sections where you need a lower center of gravity and more space to control your bike.


  • Quickly drop/raise the seat
  • Better riding convenience
  • Better riding experience


  • Higher price
  • Added weight
  • Added complexity

Mountain Bike Size

The last thing to consider when buying a mountain bike is its correct size. With the correct bike size, you prevent injuries and maximize ride comfort. It is always better to try it in person so you get the feeling.

If you plan to buy your next mountain bike online (for example, from one of these bike stores), you can use several methods for selecting its size.

To find out more about the correct size, visit How to Choose a Mountain Bike Size.

TIP: Use the Bikeinsights tool to compare different mountain bike frame geometries.

Final Thoughts

When choosing a mountain bike, think about the type of terrain you want to ride in and your riding style.

Mountain bikes are very versatile but also available in many types, so it may be tricky to pick the right one.

Depending on your budget, you can get a hardtail or a full-suspension mountain bike made of aluminum, carbon, steel, or even titanium.

Based on your preferences and height, consider getting 27.5″ or 29″ wheels. 27.5″ MTBs are more agile while 29″ more stable, and the ride feels smoother.

Make sure to buy a bike with a quality groupset from Shimano or SRAM and disc brakes (ideally hydraulic).

And last but not least, get the right size to maximize your comfort and prevent injuries.

How to Choose a Mountain Bike FAQ

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